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CYW319 Entrepreneurship and Project Management

CYW319 Entrepreneurship and Project Management


An Exploration of the Effectiveness of Government HIV/AIDS Strategies in Addressing the Needs of Affected Black Africans in England


1.0 Introduction

“The paper focuses on the research that describes the impact of immunodeficiency virus and the immune deficiency syndrome strategies that fulfils the needs of the black Africans those who got affected in England”. This paper delivers four chapters on its completion. The chapter one describes the research background, aim and objectives, rationale, and methodology of the subject. This chapter also focuses on the Ethical practice as well as on the outline of the project.

1.1 Background and Rationale

According to Poku (2017), HIV is the disease that can affect anyone and in this modern world, it is considered as one of the serious global issue regarding health. It is one of those health related issues on which the World Health Organization (WHO) publishes effective reports on a daily basis. The current report of HIV that comes from WHO reveals that there are more than seventy five million people across the world who are suffering from the HIV virus since the start of the epidemic, and more than thirty five million people has already died due to these viruses. In UK, a statistics shows that over 100,000 people contains the harmful virus i.s. HIV. AMong them, there are 27,000 people in the country who possess the virus but they have not been diagnosed. In England, there are cases where it is seen that the large number of diagnosis recorded are in the regions of London in 2013. In England and Wales, there are 998,628 people who are black African – 497,997 men and 508,929 women which is 1.9 % of the total population of England and Wales. The maximum numbers are of the younger ages who aged between 0 to 25 years and those who aged between 26 to 49. There are 666,252 of black Africans amongst all those who has born outside UK. The above mentioned figures always differs in ethnicity. Nigeria; 192,142, South Africa; 181,099, Kenya; 172,492, Zimbabwe; 181,346, Ghana; 93,435, and Somalia; 100,221. As a result, it can be seen that there are 877,272 people who has born on these six countries and those who comes from England and Wales has born on the sub Saharan Africa.

According to Rödlach (2016), HIV/AIDS is more effective in certain groups of people as they includes wrong lifestyle choices and many other health inequalities. In England, there are certain groups or peoples who all are black Africans and are living with the HIV virus.

In this modern world, there are still no medications for HIV and it needs effective management which may restricts it to develop into AIDS. However, it is very much essential to address the health and social care needs of HIV patients which will allow them in preventing the spreading of the virus within the body. Government has already introduced various effective policies and strategies which not only reduces the rate of spreading of the HIV virus, but also enhances the health and social care services for the HIV related patients. As an example, in 2001, the UK government introduced a National Strategy of Sexual Health and HIV for improving the needs of the health and social care of the HIV related patients. In 2013, this strategic framework of the Sexual Health improvement in England was introduced for dealing the vital issues of sexual health which includes the medications of the HIV virus by preventing and increasing the accessibility in the HIV treatment departments. However, implementing strategies and policies to deal with a problem is one thing whereas the impact of the policies as well as the strategies in addressing an issue is another thing. As a result, it can be concluded that the rationale of this research lies with the consideration which is very much essential in addressing the social care requirements of the black Africans living with the HIV virus in England that are needed to get fulfilled.

1.2 Aim and objectives

This research aims to deliver the investigation report of the impact of the HIV strategies that the government introduced for addressing the requirements of the black Africans of England in the section of health and social care.


  • Exploring the impact of HIV on the black Africans that are living in England.
  • Exploring the requirements in health and social care of black Africans in England who possess the HIV virus.
  • Examining the impact of the HIV strategies that has been introduced by the government for identifying the health and social care requirements of the black African HIV patients of England.

1.3 Literature search Strategy

Secondary data has been gathered for addressing the research question. The term ‘secondary data’ refers to the type of data that has been gathered by someone else. For evaluating the research, secondary type of data were gathered from different type of sources which includes the journal articles, text books, and grey literature. According to Parpia et al.(2016), the university library sometimes delivers the relevant textbooks. Journal articles has also been collected from various credible databases which includes PubMed, Science  Direct, PMC and EbscoHost. There was also the accessibility of Cambridge Journals. For collecting the relevant journal articles different type of search engines are used such as PubMed and Science-Direct. These terms were like this: “HIV in England”, “HIV prevalence among black Africans in England”, “HIV-related needs of black Africans in England”, and “HIV service in England, ‘prevention’, ‘treatment’, ‘impact related’, ‘government ‘strategies”. Boolean operators such as AND, OR were utilized for refining the search. For example, “AIDS or HIV among Black Africans” and “HIV/AIDS social care services NOT gay men”.

1.4 Inclusion/Exclusion Criteria: This section describes the strategies of literature search and justifies the exclusion and inclusion criteria.


Various papers along with the research articles were selected for the review if they: i) get success in identifying the impact of HIV among the black Africans of England. According to Bleiker and Kay (2016), the literature mainly relies on the regional parts of England where it aims to deliver the information of the population. However, the literature review for any other parts of the country will be accessed for drawing various comparisons along with offering a clear understanding of the proposed subject. ii) discussing the sexual health and HIV strategy or policy of the UK government; and iii) were introduced with the language English.


Various papers along with many research articles were not collected for the review if they: i) were not published by implementing the English language; ii) were introduced before the year 2000. These articles and papers can only be utilized in the form of old data for making comparisons of the graphical boundaries with the present set of data and these are also used to update the policies after covering ten years of publications as the older articles might considered not relevant for accessing the current set of strategies or policies; or iii) discussing the impact of HIV with any kind of groups excluding the black Africans of England.

1.5 Ethical and Anti-Oppressive Consideration

Beauchamp and Childress (2009) discuss different ethical principles. The ethical practices is based on the principles of beneficence, autonomy, non-maleficence, utilitarianism and justice which has been thoroughly followed during the research. However, this research is based on the literature review, anti-oppressive and ethical considerations are still considered essential as there are various potential ethical dilemmas. For example, Justifications of any type of interventions that aims to promote the paternalism along with undermining the autonomy were analyzed critically. In addition, if the diagnosis are done late for the black Africans which amounts to discrimination as it is considered illegal in the eyes of law. Therefore, any practice of the National Health Service (NHS) that directly or indirectly discriminates against the black African HIV patients, or any other group of peoples were discussed critically. According to Eholié and Girard (2016), equal amount of attention is delivered to the potential areas of conflicts and dilemmas that are related to the disease known as HIV/AIDS among the black Africans in the research containing the chapter 3.


1.6 Project Outline

The project outline offers the details of what is presented in each and every chapter of the research.

Chapter 1 consists of the introduction, literature search strategy, background and rationale, ethics and anti-oppressive practices of the project outline along with a summary. The chapter 2 consists of the literature review of the impact of the HIV/AIDS among the black Africans along with their health and social care requirements. The chapter 3 offers the strategy that has been introduced by the UK government. This is the chapter which offers the critical analysis of the chosen agency, the organizational policies and aims, as well as the organizational weaknesses and strengths. The chapter 4 focuses on the summarization of the project along with offering recommendations that are based on the research findings. This gets followed by reflection that comes from the experience of personal learning while compiling the project.

1.7 Summary

This chapter performs the task of examining the research background along with explaining the rationale of the research which focuses on the long term aims and objectives. As mentioned above, there is an increased rate of HIV viruses among the black Africans of England which is very much essential in evaluating the impact of the government strategies or policies.

Chapter 2

Literature review

2.0 Introduction

This is the chapter which discusses the impact of HIV/AIDS among the black Africans of England along with their health and social care requirements in motoring the disease.

2.1 The impact of HIV/AIDS among the black Africans who are residents of England

HIV is the disease that is present in many countries across the world and it is considered as a serious issue regarding health. As noted earlier, a current report of World Health Organization (WHO) shows that there are more than seventy five million peoples all over the world who has been suffering from the HIV virus since the launch of epidemic and more than thirty five million people among them has died because of HIV related diseases. Nowadays, there has been made many advancements on the scientific knowledge of HIV, as well as on the topic which focuses on the prevention and treatment of the disease. According to Gökengin et al. (2016), the global health community has also delivered significant efforts as well as by the leading government in the process of prevention along with reduction of the HIV/AIDS viruses.

After going through all these type of challenges, the last decade offers improvements that has been put forward by the National Health Community in tackling the HIV virus in an efficient manner. In every countries, where the HIV issue has been taken seriously, they managed to reduce the rate of impact of the HIV infections. The treatment facilities has also been increased which is considered a the dramatic rate of increment over the past ten years. As a result, the individuals are receiving proper treatments in the countries despite offering small amount of resources. However, the source of HIV that generates in every country is very much hard in understanding by any means of standard medical strategies. According to Reniers et al. (2016), there are many countries who possess very much less amount of resources and they need help from all other countries or by the global health community in dealing with the HIV viruses by implementing proper resources in the process. So, the source of HIV among any individual or groups of the country needs proper understanding for tackling it in an efficient manner and this is the reason why it is essential to offer strong attention in the health and care requirements of any individual or any group.

In UK, a statistical study shows that there are more than 100,000 peoples who are carrying the HIV virus. There are also more than 26,000 HIV people of UK who have not been diagnosed till date. England offers the vast majority of cases which offers the largest number of new diagnoses in 2013 which was recorded in London (Public Health England, 2014) PHE (2014) argued that although a vast majority of the UK population are not affected by HIV the data suggest that in 2013 an estimated 43,500 bisexual and gay men were living with the disease in the UK. These set of data represents those individuals who got affected by the disease and they aged between fifteen to fifty six. However, when the results are compared with the year 2014, it is seen that the impact has significantly decreased from the above mentioned figure i.e. 38,500. Moreover, there are no solid or clear indications of the rate of undiagnosed people who has been living since ages with the HIV viruses and it is also very much difficult in extracting the specific numbers of men who has done intercourse with other men and now possess the HIV disease within their body. As the actual figures cannot be generated, it creates an ethical tension. Among the heterosexual women and men, it is estimated in 2013, that there are a total of 59,500 individuals who are residing with the HIV health issue.

Among those all, who are residing in UK with the HIV virus are all black Africans. A 2001 census offers the information which shows that there are 999,628 people (519,829 women, 379,799 men) of black African origin. Most of them are the younger ones as they aged below twenty five. Nearly 670,000 of them were born outside the UK. Thus, it can be said that the amount of black Africans are 1.8 % of the total population of UK. But in England, a statistics reveals that almost thirty five percent of the total population of the country has been diagnosed with the HIV disease. Thus, it can be concluded that the black African women and men of ENgland has been affected disproportionately by the disease known as HIV/AIDS.


According to Reniers et al. (2014), there are various reports that has been published by famous world health organization’s likely UNAIDS which states that sub-Saharan Africa is the place which has seen the most number of HIV patients since the beginning of the epidemic. There has been many researches that has been done on the regions of West Africa to identify the factors that offers the understanding of the source as well as the impact of the disease. It offers the results which indicates that it has been increased due to the increased number of men in buying sex. In addition to that, the analysis of the gathered data which was extracted by utilizing the linear regression which explains the impact of the young women that are involved in many relationships with older men. This also plays a vital role in developing the HIV virus within the human body. However, it is very much important to note the method of data collection which is the review of a demographic health survey across 11 West African countries that compiled material on patterns of behaviour while having sex and HIV infection in the part of the body. The impact got highlighted by the study which can be contradicting due to the method adopted and did not clarify how ethical approval along with participant consent were addressed. However, this method is good on a large scale of research.

In 2011, a statistics reveals that there are around 24 million people who possess the HIV virus and has been residing in the parts of sub-Saharan Africa which represents sixty nine percent of the total HIV burden internationally. In the year 2011, there are ninety two percent of the pregnant women that contains the HIV virus and are residing in the sub-Saharan African regions. The sub-Saharan Africa regions also consists of ninety percent of childrens who has been suffering from the HIV/AIDS.  The impact of the diagnosed HIV among the black African and the black Caribbean England communities estimated around 3.7 % and 0.4 % respectively. When it is compared with the white population, it offers the result of 0.9 %. The heterosextuals has seen the most number of infected individuals by HIV virus and in the most parts of Africa.

2.2 The health and social care needs of the black Africans of England who possess the HIV virus

In England, the term health care requirements has no legal definition. It can be stated as needs for treatment, preventing a disease, injury, disability, illness, and the nursing care of the patient. All of these above mentioned tasks needs to be carried out by an effective professional of healthcare. However, the needs for the social health care and services are directly related to the services related to welfare where the local authorities has the power in all the activities. In this chapter, the health and social care requirements of the black Africans of those who has been suffering from the HIV virus has been discussed by offering three set of themes: access to HIV testing; access to treatment and housing and benefits.

2.3.1 Access to HIV Testing

For reducing the rate of HIV infection that is causing harm to the black Africans, or any groups or members it is very much essential for them in accessing the proper HIV testing. These set of health issues needs early diagnosis as it reduces the risk of dying. This rate has significantly increased after implementing the process of testing within the black Africans. Moreover, there are also other factors which offers contribution to the decreased rate of the viruses within the black African males. The current report of HIV that comes from WHO reveals that there are more than seventy five million people across the world who are suffering from the HIV virus since the start of the epidemic, and more than thirty five million people has already died due to these viruses.

2.3.2 Access to Treatment

Africans with the mode of treatment, have their several chances of the meeting up with the diseases like HIV/AIDS which they they turned to acquire with the time. This can be diagnosed with the treatment once it begins with full response. The treatment should be well done for the purpose of healthcare. The necessity for the treatment is reduced with the transmission of the affected transmission of the virus from a person to the other. The making of the intercourses needs to be protected with the use of the condoms. The use of the condoms are the common case in the part of the African Black people. On the other hand. Most of the religious people are against this act and this take it for the positive and negative part wit the ignorant phase if mind. They are not highly educated with the understanding of the risk involvement in this act. This can be well disseminated by the patients’ infectivity in the fact of not using the condoms. This is to make them understand of the proper usage and the guarding techniques of not having the disease disseminated among the Black Africans. The communities are treated well with the knowledge of the HIV and this can be assisted with the provision of the providing them knowledge on this particular subject (Owuor et al. 2016).

Some of the members who are involved with the ethnic culture can be of the view with the experience of the discrimination. This can be properly diagnosed with the proper treatment facilities for the analysis of the system in the UK. The making of the different strategies for the imposed treatment in the children and the people should be fairly treated with the support of their ignorance also. They should be made to understand of not getting affected by the disease with the indication of their lifestyles and the this would not make them alienated from those who do not believe in the modern theories of treatment policies.

2.3.3 Housing and benefits

Various people who are affected from HIV/AIDS live in England do not have sufficient money for their well being and the stable life leading. They are devoid of the healthy lifestyle and this makes them deprived of the possible facilities which are very common in case of the unaffected people with no such syndromes. They are mostly unemployed with the little of the amount to feed themselves only, this can be a matter of disability from the part of the Black Africans for the related benefits which there should at least access for them. There should be higher number of the facilities which should be provided to them for the support allowance to them because of the dying disease that there are bearing within them. They should be given with the larger allowance of the personal independence, payment policies for the support allowance, the dearness living allowances and the more of the support should be given to them by the Government of the UK to the black people who are the sufferers.  This view can be supported with the “examine the social and economic circumstances of people living with HIV in London.” several questionnaires were made on their distressed life mad various other researches were done with the individual data collection with the topic of their employment, income, education, residency and the housing status for which there are several questions to be answered (Logie et al. 2016).

According to the practitioners and to researchers, the total of 1,604 responded with the surveys and the findings, this responded with the fat that “Black Africans hetero sexual men and women consistently reported more difficulties than any other group in relation to employment, income, housing and residency status”.  Moreover, the 46.8% of the Black African women also added with the improper housing facilities that gave them make their houses for the insufficiency in their money matters. The authors are of the opinion that the researchers has created the biases for the research that was undertaken with the fact of the respondents from the Black Africans which met the false immigration reports which mattered to the recourse of the public responses. It is also seen from the survey that they had been proper recourse of the public funding due to the immigration status. This can be met with the basic necessities of the individuals for the entitled support for the citizens of London. The significance can be started with the indications of the legislative implementation to address the HIV housing issues in the England. The benefit should be received from the part of the Black Africans who had been striving for the better facilities for the housing and the hygiene maintenance. This os the status of their unruled part of the society which has made them apart of the benefits of the societal lifestyles (Zuma et al.2016).

2.4 Summary

It is therefore, seen that there can be no such cure for the HIV/AIDS. This can be well managed with the  proper utilisation of the better medical check ups and the proper staying facilities which are to be provided to the Black Africans. The inappropriateness of the affected disease are the well diagnosed for the key structuring of the health and care units which needs to be polished more. The need of the HIV includes for the access to the treatment of the adequate mannerisms for the hygiene maintenance for the housing and benefits. These needs should be marked with improvement of the mental and the physical well being of the patients who maintain their presence in the group of the common people. The strategies should include their proper maintenance and the government should see to the the key matters they face day to day and this should be subjected to the discussion of the following chapters for the proper assessment of the operations. The management of all the features that make stir stability fixed should be highly noticed for the adequate treatment facilities also.


Chapter 3

3.0 Introduction

England has the strategies in the maintaining of the health related issue with the addressing of the health policies. This can be analysed with the government strategies for the second section and the description, this can be described with the links and the facts between the chosen agency for the organisational program and the intervention of the health security. The positioning of the critical analysis of the facts and figures would maintain the proper guidance in which the healthy related programs are included for the serving of the better treatment to the people.


Government’s HIV strategies

The health and the social care of the Black Africans are made with the addressing of the proper strategies that can be done with the instruction of the government policies which are to be served with the government indulgence for the better treatment occurrences. The government introduced program for the National Strategy for Sexual Health and the HIV/AIDS are to be mentioned for the intention of the improvement for the health and social care in the year 2001.  The principles were set with the inequalities for the principle setting of the provision for the National Health Service Plan. the current generation of the national strategies would make the ‘Framework for Sexual Health Improvement in England’ with its introduction in the year 2013. The provision of the information evidences makes the base and the support from the government for the local level support for the Africans in England. The enabling of the involved sexual health to work for the collaboration of the accessible services and the interventions can be  better linked with the availability of the important tasks that are done with the evaluation of the supporting tools. This has however, been noted in the year 20012 with the life-threatening condition of the HIV infected patients despite the fact that the drug therapies and the introduction to the drugs which has actually made to improve with the infected ones. The difficulty in the challenges of the support and that has made the important study of the evaluation for the Sexual Health study for the year (Logie et al. 2016).

The methodology recognizes and addresses the mind troubling issues related with HIV and is done with for the accompanying within the other members with diminishing and the transmission of HIV and Sexually Transmitted disease; lessening the predominance of undiscovered HIV and Sexually Transmitted Diseases; enhancing the wellbeing and social administer to individuals living with HIV and to decrease the shame related with HIV and STDs. It is likewise that the significance of making a culture that offers need to anticipation and backings conduct change, including more secure sex. The spread of HIV and avoidable passings from this distinguished part in the structure as a portion of the principle zones should be handled (Chinouya et al. 2017). The structure contains disturbing measurements about HIV in England. As per the system, somebody was determined to have HIV at regular intervals amid 2011, and almost 50% of grown-ups recently determined to have HIV were analyzed after the time when they ought to have begun treatment. The sexual wellbeing and HIV system that was presented in 2003 given a reasonable blueprint set by the administration to address HIV and sexually transmitted contamination (STI) pervasiveness in the nation. Bekaert and White (2006) keep up in their investigation that the point of the system is to decrease the commonness levels of the sickness in England. Moreover it is recognized that the principle segment of the procedure is to enhance the nature of wellbeing and social care furnished to individuals with HIV in England (Evans, Moyo and Abdullah, 2016).

The Parliamentary part of the benefits and the impacts for thestreatfies can be argued with the general terms of the recognised relationships for the  sexual illness, poverty and social isolation for the successful implementation of the poverty and the social fact. ‘The recognised relationship between sexual illness, poverty and social isolation’ carries the successful part of the strategies for the HIV services which can be improved with the sexual health and the services for the service across England. The relation of the government with the Black Africans and their community can be served with the affirmation for the studies made the dissertation for the idea of factors that can be connected with the facts that are useful for the addressing of the services for the environmental factors as well. This has become the part of the recognition for the exhibition for the developmental services which can be done with the relationship for the sexual health and the causational environment with the better termed issues.


3.2 Agency link

The National Institute for the Health and Care Excellence has published with the guidance ikf the acceptance for the promoted part of the Black Africans for the proper treatment that has been diagnosed with the critical evaluation. This treatment can be effective with the infection of the positron that has the strategy for the disease offering of the affected and indicated for the previous analysis done with the patients, the only thing they suffered are tghe pioper tretramnmet and the exercce of the better benefits for the housing facilities. Te links for the existence of the government charities in the UK with the National AIDS Trust (NAT) which can be deleted with the society’s response to the HIV and its prevention. The campaigns of the organization are done only for the reliability and the resian of the changing chooses to be focused on the expert advices with relation to the eradication the facts of the HIV/AIDS as well as the understanding of the early diagnosis of the disease. The shopping of the attitudes for the creating awareness among the transforming society can be made to choose the organisation for better treatment facilities (Pitpitan et al. 2016).

3.3 Summary

In the part of summary it can be said that the current national outline or the agenda for sexual health development in England comprises of dealings which is intended to an achievable number of objectives. It is also evident that the preclusion or declination of the typical taboos and discernment that is related to sexual sickness and health and prevention of the diseases in order to spreading the HIV or the unwanted deaths from this diseases. The government must introduce a plan, strategy or some policy in order to handle this situation. This situation needs some coherent plan so that the HIV/Aids can be diminished from the society. However, some people think that the governmental strategies are not that useful and effective so that the situation can be controlled and the HIV and other sexual diseases can be controlled in the society. Hence, some researchers think it is effective only to some extent situations. These policies mostly fail to protect the health and other social care which very necessary components of the society when it comes to the question of the black Africans who are having HIV/AIDS and other social diseases.

It is somewhere true as the policies would be helpful if the government takes some actions on the literary side of the society mostly the black Africans society. They have issues with understanding the usefulness of the governmental policies and the other people also understand about the diseases so that they can also reduce the discriminations from the society and can help the poor people who are attacked by these diseases.



Chapter 4

Conclusion Recommendation and the Reflections on the topic

4.0 Introduction

This segment of the paper will contain the conclusion as a whole and will suggest some comprised recommendations based on the findings of the researches and the overall reflections of the topic. The conclusion and the recommendation would be reflected based on the main issues and the problems that has found in throughout the paper. This topic is very sensitive and has a very high impact on the society. Thus, this issues need to be resolved and the issues cannot be solved over a night and the government and many organisation that deals with these issues need the interventions on it. This is the problem for the world nevertheless we have concentrated on the particulate part of the world. It does not mean that the other sides of the world are safe from these; the problems will be diminished if from the one corner the people can reduce or delete these issues. We all are connected with one thread and on the humanitarian ground these issues need to be resolved.

4.1 Conclusion

HIV is very much predominant into the particular groups of people that the other people for some numbers of factors that affects the human body mostly. The main reasons for affecting these diseases are the lifestyle of the people and the increasing number of health inequalities. The mostly affected community in England are the black Africans, though it will be a generalised comment but this community is the most vulnerable in terms of affecting by the HIV or AIDS and other sexual diseases. The African men and women are the most popular ethnic community of England. These people mostly affected by the HIV and other sexual diseases. The most of the black Africans are mainly dealing their life with HIV/AIDS, the percentages are very shocking, out of 35% of all African people of England are almost affected by HIV/AIDS. This record is the diagnosed HIV report. It is evident that the African people are mostly vulnerable for the HIV/AIDS.

The social and the health care are very much needed for the African men and women even  for the children as they are also become vulnerable if the large number of people get affected by this disease. However, in England the people can diagnosed the HIV tests very easily. The government has very well defined methods and some lucrative policies for HIV tests and as well as the treatments, housing and the benefits. To discourse these policies it is also evident that the policies needs improvisation and structuration so that it can make some effective on the society coherently and more effectively. The policies need more attentions from the government and other organisation that can provide the lam sum amount of money to protect the community from the diseases. The national initiative that is known as ‘The Framework for Sexual Health Improvement in England’ it was introduced in 2001. This initiative had a broader agenda, the government wanted to enable a practices among these communities and the other people of England to change their behaviour and the lifestyle that is harmful for their health. The government wanted to promote the practices of the safer sex and improve the health and social care policies that would affect positively on the people who are having HIV/AIDS. The main issue regarding HIV is, this disease has no medicine that can cure it properly. The destinies of the affected people are death.  Thus, the government wanted to control the spread rate and the death rates from the society by handling with special care and providing the affected people some extra benefits so that they can be healthy compared to the previous situation and can feel more pleasant and the death can be avoided at least for some years. On the other hand, the data is showing that these policies are not that helpful and the core society has very less impacts on the HIV and the related sexual diseases. The National policies thus came up with some less effective phenomenal for England and the affected people.

Conversely, the discrimination and the social stigmas were still present in the society against these diseases. The sexual diseases become so intriguing that people were introducing some new epitome of discrimination that cannot be identified in the bear eyes. The stigmas were present in the health care sector which is more harmful for the affected people; many African people were prevented by the other people who were fond of these taboos to attend the tests or the treatments that are also provided by the government. The strategy was also equivocal to many people especially those are affected regarding the treatment and the responsibility, accountability for attaining the information. There was some unclear mechanism that had circulated by the government regarding the treatment of the HIV/AIDS and the regular report if these strategies are at all working for the HIV affected people. Although, there is not even any circulation, that is circulated by the government that has mentioned about the curriculum of the social departments. regarding playing the effective role on addressing the needs and the requirement of the African community that are affected by this dangerous diseases. The poor housing systems and the treatment facilities will continuously hurt the agenda of the government regarding the HIV affected people in England. The reason behind this extremely poor situation is the government has not mentioned about the requirement and the need of these affected people consequently, there is no strategy that the government has taken to handle this situation.

4.2 Recommendation

The consequences of HIV or AIDS have already provided. The paper has already provided the requirement of the HIV/AIDS  affected people more to avoid the unwanted deaths are preceded thus, it is evident that it is really required to ensure their well-being. The government must reduce the discrimination from the society by handling the issues more strategic way. The government must provide some educational activities regarding the diseases. It has happened many places that people are very educated by achieving many degrees however, they do not have ideas about many things. The government must circulate some campaign regarding sexual disease to all over the England to ensure that people are at least know about these diseases. These initiatives may bring some fresh air to the society in terms of handling the people who are affected by HIV/AIDS or discriminate those people in terms of availing their basic needs.  The government must take the account of availability of the facilities regarding the diseases like, the treatment facilities including the diagnostic facilities.  The government must restructure the account of the facilities in the coherent way in order to check that the number of people can access these facilities. These record are needed in order to improvise the situation and know about the loopholes in the policies. It would help the government in terms of helping these people in their needs and can help the society to reduce the number of HIV/AIDS affected people. The NHS and the Home office must improvise the quality of testing in terms of making the quality very high so that the people can ensure their services well defined and established. The local authorities must quality commodities to be used to help the affected people in England. The immigration rules also are changed in terms of helping the whole society from reducing the HIV/AIDS from the African people to the core society of England. The local authorities must be more careful regarding the housing facilities and the other facilities that is the HIV/AIDS affected people needs and the authorities must ensure those facilities so that the discrimination can be reduced from the society.

The overall restructuring is needed for the society in order to accept the fact that it is the problem of all the people those are residing in the society. The help is for all not only for the African or the HIV/AIDS affected people.

4.3 Reflection of the paper

According to me, the reflection is the most unique and the interesting part of a paper or an assignment. The journey of this paper was gifted me a very intriguing learning experience to me. The experiences that are enriched with some challenges and some literature searched revelation in my work. I will be using the path of Gibbs (1988) in order to provide the action plans, evaluation, feelings and the descriptions regarding my research on this topic and the paper.

At first I want share the background of making this dissertation. I was very much unsure about my topic later on when I started finalising the areas I discovered this sides of my course that was unrevealed from my side. I have finally decided about making the dissertation on HIV and the affected community of England the Africans. I was also unsure about the investigation areas and the assumptions regarding the authenticity. However, I was succeeded by making a coherent plan about the topic and the research areas. I was not very much interest on looking at the handbook and the criteria’s, it was more interesting to me to explore the sides of the subject I have chosen as I always wanted work on these interesting topics. I was more over interested to take the accounts of the flaws of the strategies and the relevance of the governmental strategies regarding this topic. I have tried to provide all relevant information comparing the current situation of thee HIV/AIDs affected people in England. The information collecting processes were complicated as the data were confidential to the government offices and they were mostly unwilling to share those information in terms of revealing their faults in these field into public.

I was honest with my effort and may have succeeded to fulfil my anticipated the logic to apply in this paper. The whole curriculum was excellently amazing in order to portraying the logic and the data.



Reference List

Adler, M., French, P., McNab, A., Smith, and  C., Wellsteed, S (2002) The National Strategy for Sexual Health and HIV: Implications for Genitourinary Medicine.Sexually Transmitted Infections. 78(2) :83-86

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