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ITECH 5500 Professional research and communication

ITECH 5500 – Professional Research and Communication



Table of Contents

Part A.. 3

Abstract 3

Introduction. 3

The doctrine of self-efficacy. 3

Research on Self-efficacy. 5

Conclusion. 8

Reference List 9

Part B.. 10

A reflective account of Self-efficacy. 10

Part A


This assignment intensely focuses on the aspect of self-efficacy to generate sustainable knowledge about the use and importance of it for every individual of every possible trait. This assignment has also depicted the definition of self-efficacy that enhances the behavioral efficiency to imbue confidence in a person. The major factors that contribute to the self-efficacy are discussed here along with its basic and operational difference with efficacy or collective efficacy. This assignment has also dealt with literature review based on the topic of self-efficacy in sports with four different article journals to reveal sustainable knowledge about the usefulness of this aspect.

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Self-efficacy can be considered as a prior aspect in order to foster personal communication and professionalism that can enhance the personal workability of a person through a channeled process of mitigating the weaknesses to gain utmost accomplishment. The aspect of Self-efficacy can be regarded as an effective perspective to be used to in the communication practices inside the organization. It can also be helpful to make effective progress in the in the development of personal and professional skills of an individual. This assignment of literature review will also consider a brief literature review that will encompass the importance of Self-efficacy organizational implications of Information Technology (Bandura, 2006). As per the views of famous psychologists, Self-efficacy is a matter of individual belief about the ability of an individual in order to accomplish supreme success in the objectives of a particular task. The sensible approach of the Self-efficacy of a person can also be termed as the process of the accomplishment of the goals and objectives for perusing different workplace challenges along with professional and personal life hurdles.

Doctrine of self-efficacy

The aspect of the efficiency of an individual imposes influence on every bit of endeavor of the individual. The determination of the personal beliefs and choices about the self-capability can improve the performance of an individual in the workplace. It has the potential influence of the individual power that can help in getting the confidence to engage in face-to-face encounters by making behavioral change. Thus, it can be considered as individual ability to procure the execution of the activities to attain the specified performance benchmark (Schwarzer, 2014). It makes a reflection on the confidence of that individual to reveal the limit of the controlling ability to foster motivation along with behavioral development and procuring a sustainable social environment. People can detect the aspired goals to be accomplished through personal activities and the things to be changed whereas most people are not able enough mentally to execute the plans effectively. The self-efficacy plays a pivotal role in the procurement of goals and task-based approaches. This can influence the way of feeling, behavioral output and the motivational aspect of the people (Urdaneta al. 2006). The people with high self-efficacy see the challenges as tasks to be achieved to enhance the expertise instead of seeing as mere preventions. Self-efficacy also imbues intrinsic interest among the individuals to help them to impose intense focus on professional activities. It also enhances the sense of commitment for the goals for personal and professional development. The self-efficacy can also help individuals to remove the setbacks by nullifying the possibilities of disappointments.

On the other hand, people with less self-efficacy have a trend to avoid challenging tasks by considering them as a potential threat to personal development. In contrary, the self-efficacy is needed to eradicate the provision of weak commitment of the people to accomplish the goal as it creates a tendency to consider the tasks as beyond capabilities. The people with less self-efficacy dwells on individual failings along with perpetuating negative results as they are incompatible to figure out the process of accomplishing success. It is very important to be present in the people in order to avoid the loss of faith in the capability that can lead a person to potential stress to foster depression. Self-efficacy motivates people to engage curiosity and eagerness to learn new skills by developing additional knowledge (Zhao et al. 2005). Efficacy is the effectiveness to foster ability in different fields to procure feasible results whereas self-efficacy focuses on the ability of an individual to incur motivation for oneself to enhance the quality of work through procuring appropriate goals. It can be considered that there can be four factors that contribute to the self-efficacy of a person or individual as these are performance accomplishments, vicarious experience, verbal persuasion, and physiological states. The mastery influences of performance accomplishments based on the perspective of the individual abilities. On the other hand, successful experiences create great feelings whereas a futile effort can also make the self-efficacy weak. The observation towards other activities can help in imitation to accomplish success. The people with similar qualities can help an observation process to enhance the confidence and self-belief to consider the activity. The verbal persuasion encourages people to enhance motivation to create the capability of attempting a tough task (Hoyet al. 2007).

The aspect of constructive feedback is also feasible to eradicate the aspect of the doubt on personal talent. The moods and emotions of the people can have an impact on the personal abilities of a person. The nervousness of a people can incur doubt in the capability to spoil the self-esteem that can completely nullify the positive approaches related to self-efficacy. The self-efficacy is also dependent on the behavioral factor of the interpreted evaluation of emotional statements of the people. This can have an immense effect on the process of diminishing the anxiety and nervousness of individuals. The self-efficacy can be enhanced and developed through moderate use of difficult tasks to test the skills of individuals. On the other hand, usage of peer models can also help in the perpetual development of the individual efficacy. The learning of specified strategies of learning can be helpful in order to capitalize on the interests of students. The individuals ought to take responsibility to take an effective part in the decision-making process and fostering own choices in order to get utter confidence in the process of incurring self-efficacy (Maddox et al. 2012). On the other hand, the procurement of encouragement among the individuals is necessary to foster effective confidence in the efficacy performances. Use of frequent and regular feedback system can also help in gathering sustainable self-knowledge to identify the strength and weakness to use the self-efficacy skills to foster sustainable development. The provision of accurate attributions can also be helpful to improve the aspect of self-efficacy among the people.

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Research on Self-efficacy

Article 1: Myers, N. D., &Feltz, D. L. (2007). From self-efficacy to collective efficacy in the sport. Handbook of sports psychology (3rd ed.). John Wiley & Sons: New Jersey, 799-819.

The research process is conducted with exercise tasks along with sports tasks as in the field of sports, the self-efficacy plays a pivotal role to boost confidence in a person to develop the performance in the field. The research questions are focused on the measurement of self-efficacy along with the use of collective efficacy to make sustainable development of the self-efficacy of an individual in team games. The motivational focus of the researchers is on the sports psychology along with its relationship with the self-efficacy of an individual. The researchers adopted CE-SE and CE-CEI method in order to execute the research strategies to gain knowledge about self-efficacy in sports. Self-efficacy is depicted as the prime factor that enhances the skill and presence of a player in comparison with the others in the field to make one compatible with legends. On the other hand, it has been depicted as the main source of motivation for a player that proves to be feasible for performance development as the researchers also elucidated self-efficacy as a tool for individual players to redeem frustration from poor form to regain the expertise. The psychology of a sportsman needs to be compatible with the performance graph as it directs the degree of commitment and confidence in the field whereas self-efficacy imposes control over these to lead to accomplishing the goals.

Article 2: Kuczka, K. K., & Treasure, D. C. (2005). Self-handicapping in competitive sport: Influence of the motivational climate, self-efficacy, and perceived importance. Psychology of Sport and Exercise6(5), 539-550.

The purpose of this research is the identification of the perception of motivation in the field of sport in the shadow of self-efficacy as it can nullify an egoistic climate that can spoil the unity in a team and confidence in a player. The researchers have used the achievement goal theory to analyze the collected data whereas 140 professional golfers are engaged in this research with a questionnaire to detect the influence of the self-efficacy in individual sports along with the normal existence of self-efficacy in them. The gender differences are not valid in case of self-efficacy as it completely depends on the rational mindset of a person to control and evoke self-efficacy to set goals and bring confidence in accomplishing those goals with ease. The method of hierarchical and multiple regression analysis is embraced to interpret the collected result for figuring out the aspect of self-efficacy and motivational climate. The coaches of the sports need to use salient task-involved cues along with the aspect of self-efficacy to improve the situational context of the players. Thus, self-efficacy is considered prior for the individual sports as the player needs to be high on the moral to sprout the best performance on the field which cannot be done without self-efficacy. On the other hand, it can be elucidated that self-efficacy is important for both individual and team game as it helps in maintaining the coherence of the confidence level and rational thinking of an individual to make that compatible with the required aspects to be focused for achieving victory.

Article 3: Feltz, D. L., Short, S. E., & Sullivan, P. J. (2008). Self-efficacy in the sport. Human Kinetics.

The self-efficacy theory can be applied to the field of the sport through the elucidation of the doctrine of Bandura whereas the behavior of sports is completely controlled by the self-efficacy. On the other hand, the process of measurement of the self-efficacy in an individual is also discussed to use the knowledge in procuring successful performance by the players through making their psychological ability stronger and perfect. The researcher also provides knowledge about the extent of self-efficacy in sports as it does not only suffice through procuring self-belief in an individual but also a generalized reliance on the team with the utmost confidence to achieve success. On the other hand, the coaches are advised to procure challenging practices of tasks for the player to provide the sustainable opportunity for them to incur the sense and behavior of self-efficacy. The focus on Human Kinetics is also depicted in this literature whereas the researcher has adopted secondary data analysis method through making the evaluation of existing literature to elucidate the data for further knowledge with an analytical point of view. The environmental conditions are also feasible in self-efficacy as it considers the feedback of the coach to allow a player to boost the confidence whereas the agentic behaviors include the effort of a player to incur self-efficacy. The personal factors are also considerable for self-efficacy in sports as the setting of goals is a pivotal factor for all the individual player to get success.

Article 4: Munroe-Chandler, K., Hall, C., &Fishburne, G. (2008). Playing with confidence: The relationship between imagery use and self-confidence and self-efficacy in youth soccer players. Journal of sports sciences26(14), 1539-1546.

This article or research paper has elucidated the reliance on self-efficacy and self-confidence to prosper the development of the skills and dedication towards soccer for the junior players. Confidence can be considered as the most prior factor that distinguishes one successful player from other mediocre players and the self-efficacy can bring the behavioral change in a player to imbue him or her with utter confidence to try the innovative skills in the field. The researchers have used the sample survey in order to gather relevant data to find answers to the research questions like factors trigger and hindering self-efficacy along with immediate importance on the gameplay. This research has the purpose of identifying recommendations to foster the self-efficacy among the junior players to create a strong base of confident behavior in the field to make prolific improvement in their game.

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The discussed literature and secondary data throughout this assignment have made it clear about the relevance of self-efficacy in every individual and especially in the players to improve their behavior and thinking ability to adopt challenges as stairs to move upwards in the development scale in the personal and professional field. Self-efficacy needs to be taught in schools as it is a pivotal aspect to be acknowledged by the children to introduce confidence in their behavioral traits for making promising improvement in skills and executions of plans to achieve goals. 

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Reference List

Myers, N. D., &Feltz, D. L. (2007). From self-efficacy to collective efficacy in the sport. Handbook of sport psychology (3rd ed.). John Wiley & Sons: New Jersey, 799-819.

Kuczka, K. K., & Treasure, D. C. (2005). Self-handicapping in competitive sport: Influence of the motivational climate, self-efficacy, and perceived importance. Psychology of Sport and Exercise6(5), 539-550.

Feltz, D. L., Short, S. E., & Sullivan, P. J. (2008). Self-efficacy in a sport. Human Kinetics.

Munroe-Chandler, K., Hall, C., &Fishburne, G. (2008). Playing with confidence: The relationship between imagery use and self-confidence and self-efficacy in youth soccer players. Journal of sports sciences26(14), 1539-1546.

Bandura, A. (2006). Guide for constructing self-efficacy scales. Self-efficacy beliefs of adolescents5(307-337).

Schwarzer, R. (Ed.). (2014). Self-efficacy: Thought control of action. Taylor & Francis.

Urdan, T., &Pajares, F. (Eds.). (2006). Self-efficacy beliefs of adolescents. IAP.

Zhao, H., Seibert, S. E., & Hills, G. E. (2005). The mediating role of self-efficacy in the development of entrepreneurial intentions. Journal of applied psychology90(6), 1265.

Tschannen-Moran, M., & Hoy, A. W. (2007). The differential antecedents of self-efficacy beliefs of novice and experienced teachers. Teaching and Teacher Education23(6), 944-956.

Maddux, J. E., &Kleiman, E. M. (2012). Self‐efficacy. The Wiley Handbook of Positive Clinical Psychology, 89-101.

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 Part B

A reflective account of Self-efficacy

The self-efficacy beliefs have aided me in enhancing my confidence to take on the tough challenges in the workplace as well as personal life. This efficacy related learning has also aided in making perfect choice led through flawless and informed choices. On the other hand, it can help in the formulation of persevering confrontation of the work-related obstacles. Personally, I think that self-efficacy is a major aspect to be considered in the process of self-development as it can be added to the curriculum of the learning process of every individual. This can be helpful for a person to realize the importance of self-efficacy to prosper motivation for incurring self-efficacy to develop the thinking and skills. On the other hand, I have felt that a lower level of self-efficacy has caused me perils through establishing the challenging tasks as real threats for me instead of a process to foster and test my skills. I have also faced problems in achieving the goals for my lack of cohesive planning for my nervous behavior for the upcoming challenge that is caused by the low self-efficacy. I am a professional football player and I think that continuous embracement of the feedback from my mentors and coaches can help me to improve the self-efficacy through evaluating the strong points and limitations to foster a confident approach to mitigate the weakness and enhance the strength. I have to attempt the tough tasks of wing play to use moderate challenges that can help me gradually to enhance my skills by eradicating the fear of challenges with a confident approach.

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